[beautiful _ darkness]'s diary

835293  Link to this entry 
Written about Sunday 2006-08-06
Written: (5051 days ago)

well Im gonna be going back home tomorrow so will be able to talk to you all then

828100  Link to this entry 
Written about Saturday 2006-07-22
Written: (5067 days ago)

A nice simple bang would probally slove it all. I wish I had a gun to put to my head. The gun would go bang and blood would flow with blackness.




O and Im gonna be gone for a long awhile Im gonna be staying with my grandma for like a week out of town.

821374  Link to this entry 
Written about Sunday 2006-07-09
Written: (5080 days ago)

Conventional medicine holds diabetes a disorder, which cannot be cured but only controlled. Once affected, one has to live with it. Where as the unani Hakeems say diabetes is not the end of the road. They strongly believe that a total cure is possible through enlivening the inactive pancreatic cells, which are responsible for this condition.
There is a saying among traditional Indian medicine practitioners that with modern, western drugs, often the cure is worse than the disease. Of course there are many exceptions but where diabetes is concerned, the side effects caused due to constant intake of western medicine of sure leads to various ailments, often as discomforting as diabetes itself. The most important difference between, western medicine and unani treatment is that, unani therapy try to make the pancreas to once again function at a normal and their natural level. There is no western medicine, which rejuvenates the pancreases. Unani, with its herbo-mineral treatment course achieve this.
Then why most people did not follow the age-old medicinal methods like unani treatment itself and saved themselves of a lot of agony got about through side effects from western drugs? If you ask us we think the most important problem faced is not the disease but the ignorance about the disease. Take for instance diabetes itself. According to most people, the best way to keep diabetes at bay or keep the sugar level down is to avoid sugar and chocolates and indulging the sweets both. The fact is that avoiding sweet things is just one aspect of keeping the sugar level at the normal level. There are innumerable requirements that a diabetic patient has to adhere to and only then would the sugar level really be kept at a normal level. For example, the patient has to take regular walks and do simple exercise. Basically make certain that perspiration takes place to burn the sugar. There are innumerable things apart from sugar, which has to be avoided. Starchy food like rice, potato & bread should be avoided. Certain vegetables like bitter gourd & French beans be consumed more to bring down the sugar level to normal and help insulin to flow. It is only when all these things adhered, them the blood sugar level will be steady.
According to the prominent unani physician & researcher Hakeem Tajuddin Hashmi, the western medicine has it's limitations as the philosophy is to treat the disease where as unani treatments are concerned that the aim is to treat the person as a whole. "It is for t his reason itself that till now there is not a single western drug that can claim to treat and heal pancreas. So it you take western drugs all you are doing is trying to keep the sugar level at the required level. The main problem that has caused diabetes which is the non functioning of the pancreas is not attended to and thus the patient is either on insulin or on heavy drugs life long which in the end lead to kidney and liver problems.
For instance there are oils that can affect the hormonal balance in the body directly or indirectly. As a direct action, the oils work as phytohormones in the same way as that an animal or human hormone would work on the body. The oils also act indirectly by triggering a particular gland into action or by balancing hormonal secretion in some way. Thus black peeper, fennel, and juniper oils have a restoring and rejuvenating affect on the pancreas while carrots, eucalyptus, fennel, geranium, lemon oils in inhalation massage, bath or in the form of tea, are insulin stimulants. The basic cause of diabetes is being treated through such methods and that is why alternative treatment system like unani is slowly gaining recognition all through the world.

817037  Link to this entry 
Written about Friday 2006-06-30
Written: (5089 days ago)

Im not even sure where to start, Im not sure if this is just stupid teenage shit... well I know some of it is. I feel horrible today, Ive felt horrible alot lately. Im not really sure why, its kinda making my day to day life diffcult. Ill be walking and not really thinking of anything, Ill just break down in tears. I know I have those who care for me very much, I have those who flatter me with complaiments. Where is thier propose in my life what part do they play, or what part do I play in thier lives. I look at photos of people Ive cared about and wonder if I made even the slightest difference. there is two of these people that I keep photos of, both wonderful people I lost in some sort of way. it saddens me to think how I could love both of them so much and lose them. Im not sure where I might of gone wrong with these things but it seems I have.
Recently there is one person who Ive begun to talk to alot and have become fond of having in my life. Thou I have made a mistake I did not mean to do so much Im not even sure what I was thinking. Anyway I want to tell this person so much what I have done wrong but I know this will hurt them. I dont think Id be able to deal with hurting this person because I dont want to lose another in my life. Maybe its not so much about losing them but that I might be losing a piece of happiness Ive gained from them being around me.
Im going to be turning 16 soon and Im so scared of it because I know that not long after Ill be graduating. I dont even know what college Ill be going to or even what Ill go to college for and I would hate to spend money on somthing then go and change my mind. I would love to go for my art I know Im not great but I love my art. Im not sure I could love my art the way I do now if I was trying to earn money by because I dont think Im that good not yet. I love to cook its one of my favorite things to do. I love to making deserts for my friends and just to make it. Im not so sure I could do that either for a job. My mom says Id be great as a phlebotomist which I almost agree with her cause I dont mind blood and Im so use to needles. To be a phlebotomist thou I would for sure have to go far away for college. I mean yea I might have it abit easier when it comes to going to college because I will get grant money or watever from the tribe (Native American or Indain). which Is great it really is but I might find it hard to ask for it because I have never been able to quite accept that bit of me. I dont think Ive been able to accept much of me, I think Ive always thought of myself as an out cast even to my own life. I think itd be fun to try myself at modeling but I dont think Im that good looking or skinny (yes I know not all models are skinny). Some day I would really like to take some sort of dance because I love to dance and listen to the music.
I know that my knowledge is very small but I think its suppose to be that way I am only 15 right now. Im going to be graduating in a year thou Ill be 16 thats the age most teenagers are just getting use to highschool and the girls are all boy crazy or girl crazy whatever the case may be. There are so many things Im gonna have to decide and Ill only be 16 Im not sure I can do that.Maybe Im making a big deal out of nothing Im not sure all I know is Im scared.

810521  Link to this entry 
Written about Monday 2006-06-19
Written: (5100 days ago)

[I Need To Be Crtl + Alt Deleted]

796927  Link to this entry 
Written about Tuesday 2006-05-23
Written: (5126 days ago)

I had to do a report for american history for somthing about World War Two so here is my report: (its 800 words)



Hideki Tojo

Hideki Tojo played many roles throughout his military carrier which pretty much was his whole life. Hideki was a student and graduated from a Military academy, Second Lieutenant in the infantry, went to Army College as a student, taught at the war College, major general, head of Kwanting Army’s military police, lieutenant general, chief of staff, vice Minster of war, Minster of war, and Prime Minster. He also ordered the attack on Pearl Harbor in which forced American in the Second World War.
Hideki Tojo was born on December 30th 1884 in Tokyo Japan. Hidenori Tojo was his father who had two other sons and was a Lieutenant General in the Japanese Army. Hidenori’s two other sons died before Hideki’s birth. Hideki grew up and then married Katsuko Ito in 1909. Katsuko and Hideki had three sons and four daughters. In 1905 Hideki graduated from a Military Academy and entered service as a Second Lieutenant in the infantry. He flew through the ranks and graduated from Army College in 1915 with top grades. After graduating from Army College in 1915 he taught at the War College and served as an infantry officer.
By 1920 Tojo had become a member of the Tosei-Ha ( Control Group). Other members were Kazushige Ugaki, Gen Sugiyama, Koiso Kuniaki, Yoshijiro Umezu, and Tetsuzan Nagata. They tried to be more conservative moderates in opposition to the radical group Koda-Ha (Imperial Benevolent Rule or Action Group). The Koda-ha group was led by Sadao Araki. Both of these groups were from a Society known as Double Leaf, a militaristic group that was devoted extremely to their nation. The Koda-ha was from the 1920’s.
During his military service he was in Switzerland and Germany. Tojo was promoted to major general in 1933; he became head of the Kwantung Army’s military police in September of 1935. Between 1937 and 1938 Tojo became a lieutenant general and chief of staff to the Kwantung Army. Fumimaro Kondoye appointed Tojo his vice minister of war in May of 1938. Not long after he was appointed vice minister of war he returned to the armed services and took command of the army’s aviation.
In July of 1937, Tojo personally led the units of the 1st Independent Mixed Brigade at the Chahar Battle. When the China Incident of 1937 occurred, the section stationed in Manchukuo moved to Hopei and fought near Peking against Chinese forces. An order came in to the brigade to participate in the offensive in Chahar Province. Within five days the Brigade had marched and reached Zhangbei, The distance of this march was 700km. Units were assigned to certain infantry divisions. 
Tojo was a supporter of Nazi Germany. He also feared the long term plans of Joseph Stalin and in 1938 he supported preemptive air strikes on both China and the Soviet Union. In July of 1941 he was appointed Minister of War by Fumimaro Kondoye. On October 16th 1941 Tojo became prime minister. Originally he backed the foreign office’s efforts to reach agreement with the U.S. On December 7th 1941 Pearl Harbor was attacked by Japan after Tojo was sure that a deal was possible. The attack on Pearl Harbor was known by the Americans; Roosevelt had broken the Japanese code. This is the reason why all the ships were not in the harbor. On December 1st Vice Admiral Nagumo got his orders to attack Pearl Harbor.
Tojo became a member of military clique, the Kodoha in the late 1930s. The Kodoha pushed Japan into the Second World War. After becoming the Minster of War in the 1940s, he was instrumental in leading Japan into the Axis Alliance with Germany and Italy. The reason for Tojo being so instrumental in Japan’s alliance with the Axis is because he was the Minster of War and helped with negations with the other countries.
Tojo resigned from office after the loss of Saopan in July of 1944, a year before being arrested by Us Military and trying to kill him self. Tojo survived and was nursed back to health. After being nursed back to health he was tried as a war criminal. Well he was in prison he kept a journal.
On December 23rd 1948 Hideki Tojo was executed by hanging. Tojo was hung at the age of 64.
Hideki Tojo I believe that he did great things as well as not so great things. He played a very important role in World War Two. Without Tojo thou the Americans would have waited longer to get into World War Two. I think he was just trying to do what he thought was going to help Japan’s future. He was a great man and should be honored for his accomplishments and more students across the world should learn about his role in World War Two.
783501  Link to this entry 
Written about Tuesday 2006-04-25
Written: (5154 days ago)
Next in thread: 784440

I told the witchdoctor, I was in love with you
I told the witchdoctor, I was in love with you
And than the witchdoctor, he told me what to do
He said that

ooh eeh ooh ahah, ting tang wallawallabingbang
ooh eeh ooh ahah, ting tang wallawallabangbang
ooh eeh ooh ahah, ting tang wallawallabingbang
ooh eeh ooh ahah, ting tang wallawallabangbang

I told the witchdoctor, you didn't love me true
I told the witchdoctor, you didn't love me nice
And than the witchdoctor, he gave me this advice
He said that

ooh eeh ooh ahah, ting tang wallawallabingbang
ooh eeh ooh ahah, ting tang wallawallabangbang
ooh eeh ooh ahah, ting tang wallawallabingbang
ooh eeh ooh ahah, ting tang wallawallabangbang

You been keeping love from me just like you were a miser
And I'll admit I wasn't very smart
So I went out to find myself a guy that's so much wiser
And he taught me the way to win your heart

My friend the witchdoctor, he taught me what to say
My friend the witchdoctor, he taught me what to do
I know that you'll be mine when I say this to you

ooh eeh ooh ahah, ting tang wallawallabingbang
ooh eeh ooh ahah, ting tang wallawallabangbang
ooh eeh ooh ahah, ting tang wallawallabingbang
ooh eeh ooh ahah, ting tang wallawallabangbang

You been keeping love from me just like you were a miser
And I'll admit I wasn't very smart
So I went out to find myself a guy that's so much wiser
And he taught me the way to win your heart

My friend the witchdoctor, he taught me what to say
My friend the witchdoctor, he taught me what to do
I know that you'll be mine when I say this to you

Oh, baby
ooh eeh ooh ahah, ting tang wallawallabingbang
ooh eeh ooh ahah, ting tang wallawallabangbang (come on and)
ooh eeh ooh ahah, ting tang wallawallabingbang
ooh eeh ooh ahah, ting tang wallawallabangbang

ooh eeh ooh ahah, ting tang wallawallabingbang
ooh eeh ooh ahah, ting tang wallawallabangbang
ooh eeh ooh ahah, ting tang wallawallabingbang
ooh eeh ooh ahah, ting tang wallawallabangbang

782292  Link to this entry 
Written about Sunday 2006-04-23
Written: (5157 days ago)

Ok so no I dont know what IEP stands for but thats what the meeting at my school was called. Pretty much it was to see what I needed left and how I was doing. So anyway I only need a few more classes and a job. with the job and class credit I will graduate at the age of 16 and be the youngest student to graduate from Willard Highschool. I will also be the 2nd to graduate highschool at the age of 16 in my family. Im scared of the future but I also enbrace it with open arms and open eyes. I know I will have great challenges to come but I believe that I can do it because I am strong. I have gone threw so much to get to where I am. Last year I wont even of dreamed of graduating next year or of feeling so wonderful and powerful. Im happy with where my life is heading and where I am in life right now. Ive also been single for awhile now it seems but its alright because most likely it wouldnt last.

anyway that my life updated.
love you all and have a wonderful time.
sincerly,
Fall

778828  Link to this entry 
Written about Monday 2006-04-17
Written: (5163 days ago)
Next in thread: 778832

How the hell did I become so stupid to fall for every little thing she tells me. What makes me believe anything anymore. Im so sick of being played with. It tears me apart so much and guess what because of her Im cutting again. I havent cut in over six months. Im to fucking fragle. How could someone have so much power over me. This tears me apart so much. Hun look what you did to me and tell me again if you love me and see if I believe you. What should make me believe you. Your still with her after all you said to me. Im so stupid!!

776898  Link to this entry 
Written about Thursday 2006-04-13
Written: (5167 days ago)
776426  Link to this entry 
Written about Wednesday 2006-04-12
Written: (5168 days ago)
Next in thread: 777218

[.....please..........]

<img:http://i21.photobucket.com/albums/b300/theyfell_x_inLOVE/iC0NS/839929.gif>




Why cant I do this why cant I even read what she writes nor look in the mirror without crying? I make myself sick with headaches stomaches and what ever achesI have by thinking about what ive lost. I know I lost it but even if I could get it back after losing it I dont think Id want it back just for the sake of protecting myself. My hands shake I can barely stand up or write my school notes. I hide my face beyond my dark hair so no one can see my eyes that tell so much of the soul. Some days Ive made myself so depressed I start to puck I do not let my mom know about this I fear that I would make her worry to much with that. Each breath I take is just abit harder. I got a single little cut done by a sadden artist on my wrist I lie and say its a cat scratch I use to never lie about it now look at me. I can barely take not hurting myself for the simple fact that it was my fix for everything and it did seem to help now it just torments my mind beyond my power. I go threw my days nothing changes Im turning into a robot doing the same thing everyday I do no like that. I get high more often and I always told myself Id never do that but now look at me. I want to ask for help but I dont know what I want to ask for help for. I know that if I ask for the wrong kind of help Im gonna be gone for so long but then everyone might forget me then.
~~~~ My Broken Little Pieces ~~~~
774625  Link to this entry 
Written about Wednesday 2006-04-12
Written: (5171 days ago)

[KILL ME PLEASE BEFORE I KILL ME]

<img:http://i21.photobucket.com/albums/b300/theyfell_x_inLOVE/iC0NS/839929.gif>
773637  Link to this entry 
Written about Friday 2006-04-07
Written: (5173 days ago)
773089  Link to this entry 
Written about Tuesday 2006-04-04
Written: (5176 days ago)

I thought that maybe you guys might find this convo intersting I did... changed the guys name so you cant contact him but the fall_angel13 is me



[18:35:43] fall_angel13: you still mad at me about the religion thing
[18:35:50] bradydar: ya
[18:36:19] fall_angel13: why?
[18:36:31] bradydar: cuz im a religious person
[18:36:57] fall_angel13: no reason to get mad at me
[18:37:14] fall_angel13: im not but im not aint relgion either
[18:39:35] fall_angel13: I think its fine for to believe as they like but Im not gonna tell them different
[18:40:05] fall_angel13: I believe that there is somthin powerful out there and I dont need to know what it is till I die
[18:41:35] bradydar: well they wont accept u unless u at least believe in them 4 a long time
[18:42:27] fall_angel13: your opion hun
[18:43:27] fall_angel13: but does that mean a baby less then a day old that dies goes to hell because they did not believe in god for a long time
[18:43:42] bradydar: i dunno
[18:43:46] bradydar: read the bible
[18:44:08] fall_angel13: i have
[18:44:19] bradydar: the whole thing?
[18:44:26] bradydar: i highly doubt it
[18:44:42] fall_angel13: i was very religious as a young child, then well then I got put more in the real world
[18:44:54] bradydar: u dont think gods real?
[18:45:00] bradydar: gods all around us
[18:46:16] fall_angel13: maybe
[18:46:35] bradydar: he is
[18:46:48] fall_angel13: why do you believe in him Will?
[18:47:06] bradydar: because theres proof all around us
[18:47:12] bradydar: who cures cancer?
[18:47:18] bradydar: cuz theres no cure on earth yet
[18:48:01] bradydar: how u think the earth was made?.
[18:48:06] fall_angel13: no it gets cut out
[18:48:19] bradydar: i meant without surgery
[18:48:33] bradydar: n kemo doesnt work
[18:49:18] fall_angel13: well it happens and the earth I cant explane because that is not my thing
[18:50:02] fall_angel13: ive never heard somthin that told me that god could be trully real
[18:50:43] fall_angel13: Im oprn to the idea that he is real thou
[18:51:01] bradydar: ok then y dont u believe everything n follow his word?
[18:52:22] fall_angel13: because if he were real why are so many on this earth hurting and starving even if they did not do anything wrong. Why is there disese. why would someone with such great power let these things happen to his "childeren"
[18:52:44] bradydar: God tests peoples faith
[18:53:03] bradydar: y u think so many people r goin 2 hell nowadays
[18:53:19] bradydar: n plus ppl these days arent showin their love 4 God nowadays
[18:53:29] bradydar: n plus the apocalypse is comin soon
[18:53:40] bradydar: june 6th 2006
[18:53:48] bradydar: in other words 6-6-06
[18:53:50] fall_angel13: Im gonna have fun that day
[18:54:06] fall_angel13: and the world wont end its a day like any other
[18:54:20] bradydar: wuttever u believe wut u want
[18:54:31] bradydar: i kno my place is in heaven when i die
[18:54:42] bradydar: n it might b soon
[18:55:00] fall_angel13: my place I dont even know what it is to be on earth yet alone after death and Im in no rush to find out
[18:55:24] fall_angel13: I do hope that it is not soon for you
770719  Link to this entry 
Written about Wednesday 2006-03-29
Written: (5181 days ago)

I dont know I really dont know. Ive been shackie all day I couldnt even eat lunch of breakfast. Its not my daibetes its not cuase Im getting sick. I believe dreams warn of a future if your not to careful. Maybe I should take the sign as I need to live life to its fullist. Im not sure but I do know Im scared to the point of I cant eat I cant drink and I can barely stand also Ive barely said two words today. Im so scared and Im not sure what to do. Last night I felt sick to my stomach before I fell asleep this, morning I woke up and was taking a shower and I had my eyes closed relaxing when I started slightly dream but I wasnt sleeping. Anyway the dreams stopped and everything was black then suddenly there was a skull just a skull it was all beaten and bloody. Is it just a bad dream or is it a sign of things to come? Am I overacting like my mom says?... Also someone that depresses me is back at school but I know that cant be the reason for the dream.

768080  Link to this entry 
Written about Saturday 2006-03-25
Written: (5186 days ago)

Maybe Its now that Im suppose to walk away just simply turn my back on everyone I thought cared for me and just simply walk away and save them from myself

765292  Link to this entry 
Written about Sunday 2006-03-19
Written: (5192 days ago)

[Sometimes Im so alone that Im not sure Im still living]

764877  Link to this entry 
Written about Saturday 2006-03-18
Written: (5193 days ago)

Im so cool, so important, and loved by everyone.... Well use to be

761097  Link to this entry 
Written about Friday 2006-03-10
Written: (5201 days ago)

I know I cant say that it doesnt hurt to see someone I like with my best friend I also cant say Im not happy for the both of them. Its bothers me more then Id like. Today I had to walk away more then 10 times just so I wont hurt myself or start crying. One of these times I decided to go swing on the swing so I jumped on with one foot where your butt goes and just swung for awhile thinking. My wrist hurts also but not cause I cut persay.

well love you guys and if any of this bothers you Im sorry

760082  Link to this entry 
Written about Wednesday 2006-03-08
Written: (5203 days ago)

report of american history enjoy


In 1692 from June to September nineteen men and women were convicted of witchcraft
and hung. One man was pressed by a large rock till he died. Many stayed in a
jail cell for months in till trail and hanging.

There is no answer to the questions that could be asked. Like why did it happen? Was it
simple teenage boredom or the war close to Salem, economic conditions, congregational strife,
and even personal jealousy? It could be a number of simple things but only you can decide what it
truly was.

In 1688 Samuel Parris was invited by John Putman one of Salem's Village elders, he was
invited to preach in the village church. A year later in 1689 the final negotiations over salary,
inflation adjustments, and free wood, Parris accepted the job as the Village Minster. Parris and his
family Elizabeth his wife, his six-year-old daughter Betty, niece Abigail Williams, and his Indian
slave Tituba moved that same year to Salem Village.

In the winter of 1692 Parris' daughter Betty became strangely ill. She dashed about, dove
under furniture, contorted in pain, and complained of fever. Her symptoms may have come from a
number of things or a combination of stress, asthma, guilt, child abuse, epilepsy, and delusional
psychosis but there were other theories. Some of these theories changed because of a book that
was written about a Irish woman that was suspected of witchcraft, written by Cotton Mather. In
the book Cotton wrote how the afflicted people would act, Betty's behaviors were much like the
ones written in the book.

Soon Betty's playmates began to get sick eleven-year-old Ann Putman, seventeen-year-old
Mercy Lewis, and Mary Walcott. William Griggs examined the children; Griggs tried a secret
remedy on the children that failed. After the failure of his secret remedy Griggs suggested that the
cause of their sickness may be supernatural. What made this seem likely was the fact that talk of
witches targeting the children was.

Mary Sibley, a neighbor proposed a spell of sort to counter "the witches". Sibley told
Tituba Parris' Indian slave to bake rye cake with the urine of the afflicted victim and feed the cake
to a dog (Dogs were believed to be used by witches as agents to carry out their devilish
commands.) Tituba was suspected as a witch. Tituba was suspected of witchcraft because she
would tell the girls tales of omens, voodoo, and witchcraft from her native folklore.



Not to soon after Tituba was the main suspect the number of childeren sick grew to
seven.These girls would fall in frozen postures, and complained of a biting and pinching feeling.
To find the witch became a obession within this little once quiet village of Salem.

On Febuary 29th there was a arrest arrant released with permission to arrest Tiuba, Betty
Parris, and Abigail Williams.With this the Witchhunt began. Ann Putman and Mercy Lewis
reported seeing witches flying in the winter mist.

Tituba, Sarah Good, and Sarah Osborn were the first three to be accused of witchcraft.
Good was not of highclass or even middle class she was a beggar and stayed wherever someone
would let her.Osborn had not attended church in over a year and was very old. The sick childeren
described being attacked by the three women. When in the presence of one of the suspects they
would fall to the ground in contortions. Other villagers reported stories of foood going bad and
deformities after vists of the suspects. The supspects were asked many queastions by the
magistrates.

Sarah Good's four-year-old daughter Dorcas Good was accusedof being a witch and was
the first Child to become accused of witchcraft. Dorcas was arrested, she was kept in jail for eight
months,watched her mother get carried off to the gallows.

The accused began to see admitting it as a way of avoiding the gallows. The jails became
quickly full and on the brink of chaos. A new court was created by Governor Phips to just hear
witch craft cases; this court was called the "court of oyer and terminer". Chief Justice, and most
influential member of the court, was a gung-ho witch hunter named William Stoughton. Mather
urged Stoughton and the other judges to credit confessions and admit "spectral evidence"
(testimony by afflicted persons that they had been visited by a suspect's specter). Ministers were
looked to for guidance by the judges, who were generally without legal training, on matters
pertaining to witchcraft. Mather's advice was heeded. the judges also decided to allow the
so-called "touching test" (defendants were asked to touch afflicted persons to see if their touch, as
was generally assumed of the touch of witches, would stop their contortions) and examination of
the bodies of accused for evidence of "witches' marks" (moles or the like upon which a witch's
familiar might suck)Evidence that would be excluded from modern courtrooms-- hearsay, gossip,
stories, unsupported assertions, surmises-- was also generally admitted. Many protections that
modern defendants take for granted were lacking in Salem: accused witches had no legal counsel,
could not have witnesses testify under oath on their behalf, and had no formal avenues of appeal.
Defendants could, however, speak for themselves, produce evidence, and cross-examine their
accusers. The degree to which defendants in Salem were able to take advantage of their modest
protections varied considerably, depending on their own acuteness and their influence in the
community.

The first accused witch to be brought to trial was Bridget Bishop. Almost sixty years old,
owner of a tavern where patrons could drink cider ale and play shuffleboard (even on the
Sabbath), critical of her neighbors, and reluctant to pay her her bills, Bishop was a likely candidate
for an accusation of witchcraft.As the summer of 1692 warmed, the pace of trials picked up. Not
all defendants were as disreputable as Bridget Bishop. Rebecca Nurse was a pious, respected
woman whose specter, according to Ann Putnam, Jr. and Abagail Williams, attacked them in mid
March of 1692. People who scoffed at accusations of witchcraft risked becoming targets of
accusations themselves. One man who was openly critical of the trials paid for his skepticism with
his life.

By early autumn of 1692, Salem's lust for blood was ebbing. Doubts were developing as
to how so many respectable people could be guilty. Reverend John Hale said, " It cannot be
imagined that in a place of so much knowledge, so many in so small compass of land should
abominably leap into the Devil's lap at once."

 By the time the witchhunt ended, nineteen convicted witches were executed, at least four
accused witches had died in prison, and one man, Giles Corey, had been pressed to death. About
one to two hundred other persons were arrested and imprisoned on witchcraft charges. Two dogs
were executed as suspected accomplices of witches.

 A period of atonement began in the colony. Samuel Sewall, one of the judges, issued a
public confession of guilt and an apology. Several jurors came forward to say that they were
"sadly deluded and mistaken" in their judgments. Reverend Samuel Parris conceded errors of
judgment, but mostly shifted blame to others. Parris was replaced as minister of Salem village by
Thomas Green, who devoted his career to putting his torn congregation back together. Governor
Phips blamed the entire affair on William Stoughton. Stoughton, clearly more to blame than
anyone for the tragic episode, refused to apologize or explain himself. He criticized Phips for
interfering just when he was about to "clear the land" of witches. Stoughton became the next
governor of Massachusetts.

   The witches disappeared, but witchhunting in America did not. Each generation must learn the
lessons of history or risk repeating its mistakes. Salem should warn us to think hard about how to
best safeguard and improve our system of justice.

 The logged in version 

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